Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI)

The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) (Word Doc)

Scoring Instructions for the ZTPI (Word Doc)

Prisoners of Time: Report of the National Education Commission on Time and Learning

Selected articles using the ZTPI

Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. By Zimbardo, Philip G.; Boyd, John N. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1999 Dec Vol 77(6) 1271-1288

Who’s smoking, drinking, and using drugs? Time perspective as a predictor of substance use. By Keough, Kelli A.; Zimbardo, Philip G.; Boyd, John N. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 1999 Jun Vol 21(2) 149-164.

Present time perspective as a predictor of risky driving. By Zimbardo, Philip G.; Keough, Kelli A.; Boyd, John N. Personality and Individual Differences. 1997 Dec Vol 23(6) 1007-1023.

Time Perspective, Health, and Risk Taking. By Boyd, John N.; Zimbardo, Philip G. Strathman, Alan (Ed); Joireman, Jeff (Ed). Understanding behavior in the context of time: Theory, research, and application. (pp. 85-107). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers (2005) xix, 356 pp.

Constructing Time After Death: The Transcendental-Future Time Perspective. By Boyd, John N.; Zimbardo, Philip G. Storm, Lance (Ed); Thalbourne, Michael A. (Ed). The survival of human consciousness: Essays on the possibility of life after death. (pp. 107-126). Jefferson, NC, US: McFarland & Co (2006) viii, 311 pp.

Participant Self-Selection Biases as a Function of Individual Differences in Time Perspective. By Harber, Kent D, Zimbardo; Philip G; Boyd, John N. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 2003 Sep Vol 25(3) 255-264.


Robert Levine, Alison Holman, Ilona Boniwell, Kent Harber, Jeff Joireman, Alan Strathman, Anna Sircova, Wessel van Beek

International validation of the ZTPI

Validation française de l’échelle de temporalité. / The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI). By Apostolidis, T.; Fieulaine, N. European Review of Applied Psychology/Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée. 2004 Sep Vol 54(3) 207-217.

Academically Talented Adolescents
The reliability and validity of zimbardo time perspective inventory scores in academically talented adolescents. By Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2007 Jun Vol 67(3) 487-504

Estructura factorial y fiabilidad del Inventario de Perspectiva Temporal de Zimbardo. / Factorial structure and reliability of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. By Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco Psicothema. 2006 Aug Vol 18(3) 565-571

Sustainable Behavior and Time Perspective: Present, Past, and Future Orientations and Their Relationship with Water Conservation Behavior. By Corral-Verdugo, Víctor; Fraijo-Sing, Blanca; Pinheiro, José Q. Revista Interamericana de Psicología. 2006 May-Aug Vol 40(2) 139-147

Testing Zimbardo’s Stanford TimePerspective Inventory (STPI)– Short Form: An Italian study. By D’Alessio, Marisa; Guarino, Angela; de Pascalis, Vilfredo; Zimbardo, Philip G. Time & Society. 2003 Sep Vol 12(2-3) 333-347